How to Write a Citation


A citation is an acknowledgment of the source of information in your writing. Citations appear in the body of a paper or at the end of a bibliography. The type of information required for a citation varies by style guide.

For example, the MLA Handbook describes how to cite different kinds of authors and sources. You may also need to include additional information, such as a URL for web pages. Click Here for more information.

A citation is an entry in a list of references (called Works Cited pages in MLA style, References pages in APA and CSE style, and a Bibliography page in Chicago) that appears at the end of a paper. It provides information about the source from which the ideas or quotations in a paper are drawn. Each citation should have the full author name, date of publication, and publisher information. The list of references may be ordered alphabetically or in order of appearance in the text, depending on the conventions of your discipline and the guidelines of the target journal.

The author of a citation is always listed first. If the work has multiple authors, use a semicolon to separate the names. If there is a single author, include the name followed by a period. If there is more than one author, use the phrase “et al.” after the initials of the first three or four authors in a parenthetical citation. Do not use “et al.” for a group author in the main text of your paper or for a narrative in-text citation, as this can cause confusion for the reader.

Omit any degrees, honors, or ranks that appear before or after a personal name. Use the first letter of each given name and the second letter of each middle name in a citation. Disregard hyphens and en dashes joining given names and enter them as written, including all punctuation marks.

If the work has more than one author, cite all authors in the reference list and in your in-text citations. If the work has a single author, use a period in the in-text citations but not in the reference list. If the author is a corporate author, then use the full name of the corporation in the reference list and the in-text citations.

A corporate author is one who is responsible for creating the source material for a work. This person should be listed as the sole author of a parenthetical or narrative in-text citation but included with other authors in the reference list. If the work has both personal and corporate authors, cite all authors in the reference list but only include the first personal author’s name in the parenthetical in-text citation and in the narrative in-text citation.


While they may not have a lot of characters, the titles of works are important elements in any citation. They are used to identify the work in a reference list and, sometimes, in the text of a paper. The title is usually taken from an authoritative location in the source, such as the title page. Titles should be capitalized, except for articles, prepositions, coordinating conjunctions (although, because, or, so, until, while), and the “to” in infinitives. However, the word “and” may be used in place of a coordinating conjunction if it is short and does not detract from the meaning.

Titles should be italicized if they are part of bigger works like books and research papers. If they are stand-alone, they should be put inside quotation marks. It is also helpful to include the subtitle of a work in a citation. This will help readers find the work when they are looking for it.

The year of publication is included in the citation for most types of sources. In some cases, you may need to include the month, day, or season along with the year. This information is often found on the copyright page of a book or on the back of the title page.

If there are multiple authors, cite the surname of each author followed by their initials. When citing more than two authors, use an ampersand and one space between initials. For example: Kimathi, J. M. Yuen, C. W.

In some cases, you may need to cite the full name of a government agency in addition to the individual authors. If there are several layers of government agencies, use the most specific one to avoid confusion.

When citing online resources, make sure that you give the URL of the resource and not just the home or log-in page. For example, if the work is a database, provide the name of the database and the URL for that database. You should also cite the version number of the database when it is available. It is useful to cite a work in more than one database, especially if the work is cited frequently.


Academic journals publish scholarly, peer-reviewed articles. These articles report original research that has been conducted by experts in a specific field. Scholarly journals are important because they provide authoritative knowledge to researchers, teachers, and students. Some scholarly journals also feature book reviews and editorials.

A scholarly journal’s citation pattern is an important indicator of its quality and impact. Citation metrics, like Eigenfactor, CiteScore, and Journal Citation Reports, are used to measure the scholarly influence of journals. These metrics are based on a journal’s previous performance and compare the performance of a journal with other journals in its field.

In addition to journal-level bibliometrics, article-level bibliometrics are useful for assessing the impact of individual papers. These metrics are based on the number of citations that individual articles receive over time. Article-level bibliometrics can be compared across journals and disciplines, providing valuable information to authors who are considering whether or not to submit their work for publication in particular journals.

While librarians and other researchers have studied the citation patterns of journals for years, modern bibliometric tools make it possible to examine the citation performance of individual papers. These bibliometric tools include the journal impact factor, the h-index, and the CiteScore. Some of these bibliometric tools, such as Eigenfactor and CiteScore, are free to use, while others, such as JCR and the Web of Science Core Collection, require a subscription to access.

The journal impact factor (JIF) is a metric provided by Clarivate Analytics, formerly Thomson Reuters, and reported in its annual Journal Citation Reports (JCR). It is based on the average number of citations to articles published in a journal during the previous two years. The JIF is the primary determinant of a journal’s position in its subject category and is an important indicator of a journal’s quality and impact.

Although some instances of citation manipulation are relatively easy to spot, there has been increased concern over less detectable forms of journal-level citation manipulation. One of these is the formation of citation cartels, which involve groups of journals that cite each other at excessively high rates.


Containers are the lightweight virtualization technology that powers modern cloud applications. By bundling together all the components of an application, they enable developers to deploy and manage workloads on a shared kernel-based OS host, regardless of the underlying hardware platform or operating system (OS-level virtualization). They can be rapidly spun up and destroyed by container orchestration platforms like Kubernetes, delivering extreme on-demand scalability.

In the past, MLA citations required writers to conform their citations around source types, such as books or journals. But the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook calls for writers to consider containers when creating citations. The key is to keep in mind that a container itself does not qualify as a work in its own right but rather as a segment of a larger work. Therefore, the container’s title should be followed by a comma and the rest of the Core Elements for the source.

While many people think of a container as a single, portable unit that contains an entire application, the true definition is much more complicated. A container consists of the entire runtime environment, including the application and all libraries, binaries, configuration files, and settings needed to run it. This enables software to be reliably moved from a developer’s laptop or test environment to a staging environment or even to production environments.

A container can be used by a number of different software tools, including command-line tools or APIs. It can be deployed using a container engine, such as LXD or Docker, and it can be clustered for high availability and performance. Containers are a popular solution for cloud computing because they allow developers to move apps quickly between development, test, and production environments. They also support microservice architecture, enabling developers to break monolithic applications into smaller, reusable components.

When citing sources that are accessed online, be sure to include the URL, or “web address,” of the source. You should also shorten long URLs because they can look ugly in your Works Cited list. If the source is a database, you can often find a permalink to a specific version of the resource, which can be helpful for keeping track of changes.


What Is Free Traffic?

What Is Free Traffic

What is Free Targeted Traffic? Brian Willie Is A Specialist In Search Engine Optimization and has written this free e-book on the topic. Empire Free Traffic System Review is a must-have for any marketer and even more so for newbies and experts alike. When you open an online store, it does not matter what store. It’s a store from which you sell your products or services or even both. A storefront is a must, and if you don t already have one, you will want to consider having one as soon as possible.

But why should you build a store front? Brian Willie explains that a store front is great for 2 reasons. First of all, this is a great way to increase traffic to your website. People who see your products are going to know that they can purchase them and have them delivered right to their front door without any hassle or worry. And if they are ready to order, this is a great way to get them in the habit of purchasing what you touts in your sales pages.

Building a store front is also a good way to increase your ranking in the search engine results. This means that more people who are looking for the products or services that you offer will find you. Through social media, for example, you can work to target your audience and advertise to them. Again, by targeting your audience and advertising to them on social media, you will be able to increase your free traffic or targeted traffic.

Another great way to increase your traffic is through the use of organic search engine traffic. This is traffic that comes directly from the search engines without any paid listings. For example, if someone is searching for a particular product on Google, they will likely click on one of the organic listings for it. If you are an affiliate for that product, you will benefit from the sale because it brought you a visitor.

Another great way to increase your organic traffic is through networking. The internet marketing gurus have said many times over that word of mouth is a very powerful form of promotion. By putting out a newsletter to your target audience, you can increase your visibility within your niche. Of course, in order to generate high quality leads, you must make sure that you keep your newsletter interesting and current. So if you want to use this method to increase your internet marketing leads, make sure you include tips, tricks, and information about the latest trends and news in your market space.

Another form of free traffic would be to go onto a website that offers this service. There are literally thousands of these sites that you can sign up for. These websites are basically free advertising for your own business. With every website that you put on your list, you can expect to get a significant amount of traffic that you can funnel to your site. The only drawback to these websites is that you need to spend money to get free traffic from them. However, as long as you manage to make the website appealing to your target audience, you can generally count on it to drive a good amount of free traffic to your site as well.

The last and one of the best forms of traffic to drive is called long tail keywords. These are specific words or phrases that are relatively untargeted. They are more difficult to rank for in search engines but search engines have come up with different solutions to this issue. One solution is to use long tail keywords in your content. The problem with using long tail keywords is that most people use these words once or twice in a write up and misspell them several times so you will most likely not see much success with it.

The most effective form of free traffic comes in the form of guest blogging and/or guest blogging opportunities on another blog post or website. This form of traffic is far less time consuming than search engine optimization but can be extremely profitable. It takes some time to set up guest blogging opportunities so it is typically best to keep your guest blogging events at least 10 or so days apart. Another tip to successful guest blogging is to wait until the other person has completely finished doing their article before you start writing your own. This will allow you time to write your own article and a link back to your article(s).


Shopify, the Drop Shipping Marketplace Partner of Aliexpress

A quick refresher: Dropshipping is an internet-based retail business where a third-party is handled shipping and inventory. Rather than keep the physical stock, you let a wholesale supplier handles the actual shipping and receiving for you. When a customer makes a purchase online, you then place their order with the drop-ship supplier. You then take care of running the website and marketing products that your specialty is – getting new customers to the stage where they check out. This is basically how dropshipping works. Check out the 3 important tips from professional digital marketers at

drop shipping

There are many companies that you can use as your drop shipping supplier. It could be a supplier of items such as clothing or electronics. Just be careful to choose a supplier who offers competitive prices, delivery within the promised time period and can provide good service. Some suppliers specialize in one particular product, so be sure you’re dealing with someone who only deals with your kind of merchandise. For example, a supplier who deals with polymer clay products should not be allowed to sell you a polyester coating. Also, do not trust companies that offer to sell you bulk amounts of products in bulk unless they can do so.

Once you have found a few potential suppliers that you feel may be able to help you with your retail business, you’ll need to put them to the test. Remember that drop shipping requires you to pay a sales commission to your supplier, so it stands to reason that you will also need to pay a commission to your chosen dropshipping company. So how will these companies fulfill orders? How will they get your products into the hands of your customers? The process of drop shipping can be complicated, so you’ll need to do your homework to find reputable providers.

In this article you are provided an overview of how drop ship wholesalers operate and the type of wholesalers who will be most suitable for your retail business. By no means is this a comprehensive review, but it is meant to offer an outline of some of the critical points to consider as you seek to establish a successful drop ship supply chain. Many wholesalers today offer their clients complete turnkey solutions. These businesses work with customers on an online store front, from the initial product supply to the final delivery of products to your customers.

The first step that most new business owners consider a drop-shipping operation to take is to purchase a website and sign up to sell through an online auction site or build their own website. While both of these options present some advantages, you may want to investigate the feasibility of selling your products through these venues before making any commitment. You may also want to try the waters with an established business before committing to a drop-shipping provider.

When you establish a business legally, you will need to register the business at your local government agency. There will be sales tax ramifications for your purchases and your income. Once you complete this important first step, however, you can find a vast array of drop shippers and wholesalers that will meet all of your needs. Some drop shippers charge taxes on the purchases of their customers. Other drop shippers have special arrangements with vendors to pass along the sales tax to you.

There are several directories, websites, and books available today that will help you locate drop-shipping providers, qualified distributors, drop shippers, and individual vendors who can provide you with just the services you need to earn a profit from your new online shop. In fact, many of these sites are free or charge fees to access their resources. Aliexpress is one such online directory that has been around for years and continues to grow.

Aliexpress is a collection of the information of dozens of online retailers and suppliers. Each category of products or services has been categorized into dropshipping categories. You can search for products or services that fit your own personal niche or look for individual suppliers who fit into one of the drop-shipping categories. You can also search for drop-shipping suppliers by price range, latest reviews, and more. If you are looking for a great way to start your own online store, consider the innovative concepts and easy to use tools that Aliexpress has to offer.